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Electrical Lab Experiments

To verify Reciprocity Theorem for the given circuit



Aim: To verify Reciprocity Theorem for the given circuit.

Apparaus Required:

S.No. Equipment Range Type Quantity
1 Bread board - - 1 NO
2 Ammeter (0-20)mA Digital 1 NO
3 RPS 0-30V Digital 1 NO
4 Connecting Wires - - As required
5 Resistors 2.2k Ω 1 NO
10k Ω 1 NO
470 Ω 1 NO

Circuit Diagram:

Practical Circuits:

Circuit-1:

Circuit- 2:

Theory:

In any linear, bilateral, single source network, the ratio of response to the excitation is same even though the positions of excitation and response are interchanged. This theorem permits to transfer source from one position in the circuit to another and may be stated as under.

Consider the network shown in Fig. AAI denotes input terminals and BBI denotes output terminals. The application of voltage V across AAI produces current I at BBI. Now if the positions of the source and responses are interchanged, by connecting the voltage source across BBI, the resultant current I will be at terminals AAI. According to the reciprocity theorem, the ratio of response to excitation is the same in both cases.

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the fig (1).

2. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to an appropriate value (Say 20V).

3. Note down the current through 2.2K Ω by using ammeter.

4. Reduce the output voltage of the RPS to 0V and switch-off the supply.

5. Disconnect the circuit and connect the circuit as per the fig (2).

6. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to an appropriate value (Say 20V).

7. Note down the current through 10K Ω resistor from ammeter.

8. Reduce the output voltage of the RPS to 0V and switch-off the supply.

9. Disconnect the circuit

Theoritical Calculations:

Tabular Columns:

Observation Table:

Precautions:

  1. Initially keep the RPS output voltage knob in zero volt position.
  2. Set the ammeter pointer at zero position.
  3. Take the readings without parallax error.
  4. Avoid loose connections.
  5. Avoid short circuit of RPS output terminals.
  6. If voltmeter gives negative reading then interchange the terminals connections of a voltmeter

Result:

Viva Questions:

  • What is reciprocity theorem?
  • Why it is not applicable for unilateral circuit?